Sabtu, 23 Februari 2013

Contoh skripsi bahasa Inggris



DAFTAR ISI
 

                                                                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                       
1.     Chapter I.    INTRODUCTION 
A.      The Background of The Topic ………………………………………….......1
B.      The  Reason for Choosing The Topic………………………………….....2
C.      The Problem Statements………………………………………………...……2
D.     The Assumptions …………………………………………………………..…....2
E.      The Purpose of the Study ……………………………………………….…...3
F.      The Significance of The Study ………………………………………..….....3
G.      Research Design …………………………………………………………..……..5
H.     Limitation of Study ………………………………………………………..…….5
I.        The Defkritions of The Important Terms ……………………………...5
J.        Organization of The Paper …………………………………………………...5

2.      Chapter  II.  A REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1.            General Remarks ………………………………………………………….7
2.2.            Vocabulary and Writing “Finding The Right Word” …...…...7
2.3.            Principles of Vocabulary Development ………………………….8
2.4.            Using Vocabulary to Improve Writing ………………………….10

3.      Chapter III  RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1.            Researh Method …………………………………………………………13
3.2.            Population and Sample ……………………………………………….14
3.3.            Variables In The Study ………………………………………………..14
3.4.            The Research Intrument Development ………………………..15
3.5.            Prosedurs …………………………………………………………………..16
3.6.            Tehniques  of Data Analisys ………………………………………...17
4.      Chapter IV.  DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
4.1.            Test Result Analysis …………………………………………………....18
4.2.            Correlations Analysis ………………………………………………….20


5.      Chapter  IV.  CONLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
5.1.            Conclusions……………………………………………………………….22
5.2.            Suggestions ………………………………………………………………22
6.      BIBLIOGRAPHY ………………………………………………………………………..23




                                                   













CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

 

A.    The Background of the Topic
Nowadays it is widely accepted that vocabulary teaching should be an integrative part of teaching language skills. Some authors, led by Lewis (1993) argue that vocabulary should be at the centre of language teaching, because ‘language consists of grammaticalized lexis’.
      In the previous years, teachers of English as a foreign language have tended to teach language skills and aspects separately from each other. However, some specialists have argued that writing and vocabulary are closely connected and should be taught together. In this paper, theories and research on writing and vocabulary connection are briefly discussed, followed by a variety of recommended pedagogical applications and teaching activities. 
Students might even have a receptive knowledge of a wider range of vocabulary, which means they can recognize the item and recognize its meaning. Nevertheless, their productive use of a wide range of vocabulary is normally limited, and this is one of the areas that need greater attention. At this stage the writer is concerned not only with students understanding the meaning of words, but also being able to use them appropriately, taking into account factors such as oral / written use of the language, degree of formality, style and others.


B.     The Reasons for Choosing the Topic
There are, at least, three reasons of conducting this research:
First, wraiting is based on the notion that vocabulary supports and shapes EFL learners' writing composition.   
Second, vocabulary is not merely helpful for enhancing EFL learners’ writing ability in a general sense.
Third, through vocabulary, students are given opportunities in writing composition.  

C.    The Problem Statements
To focus the investigation on the basis of the reasons above, this study is mainly based on the formulated question below: 
“Is there any correlation between students’ vocabulary mastery and their ability in writing composition?”

D.    The Assumptions and Hypothesis
In dealing with the core topic of this paper, the writer assumes that:
1.      the students’ lacks of vocabulary mastery leads to poorness of writing ability,   
2.      developing ideas in writing should be presented through adequate vocabulary mastery,
3.      vocabulary enlightens students’ writing work.
      The hypothesis of this research that will be proven through the investigation is: “There is correlation between students’ vocabulary mastery and their ability in writing composition.”

E.     The Purposes of the Study
Based on the problem statement above, this study is mainly focused on finding out the correlation between students’ vocabulary mastery and their ability in writing composition.

F.     The Significance of the Study
The possible finding of this research is expected to contribute some information, theoretical and practical perspectives to those concerned with teaching writing.
   
G.    The Research Design
The problem exposed in this study deals with the existing phenomena of students’ vocabulary mastery and their ability in writing composition. In this research, the writer does not involve herself into the actual condition. In other words, the research is designed in descriptive method although some quantitative data are needed and statistical computation is employed. The method, population and sample, and the site of the research is presented below. 

    
1.      Method
Descriptive method deals with describing the existing conditions of variables (Fraenkel and Wallen, 1990). For this purpose, students’ vocabulary mastery is regarded as independent variable and students’ work on writing compositions as dependent variable. Statistical computations obtained are, at least, used to describe how dependent variable (vocabulary mastery) correlates to independent variable (writing composition). Pearson product moment will be employed to find out the level significance of the correlation.    

2.      Instruments
To gain the data needed, the writer uses two types of tests, vocabulary and writing composition tests. These tests are considered as important data sources. The procedures of tests, validity and reliability of test construct will be discussed further.

3.      Population and Sample
The population of this research is all of the second year students of STKIP Garut of English Department. The total number of the students is 131 of four parallel classes of academic year 2008/2009. Of the total population, 40 students are purposively selected as the sample of the research.



4.      Research Site
As it has been mentioned before, that research is conducted at STKIP Garut. This research site is chosen due to the reasons that the writer has been familiar with the sample members as her juniors at the same campus. This makes her relatively easier to contact and communicate with the sample needed.

H.    Limitation of Study
The sampling procedure with its small number of the sample may decrease the all-purpose of the findings. This study may not be generalized to all areas of teaching wraiting in different setting and larger scope of the research.

I.       The Definitions of Important Terms
There are three terms that should be clarified for the purpose of understanding:  
1.      Vocabulary mastery, in this study, is defined as a number of English words that have been achieved by the sample during their study in English Department. 
2.      Writing Composition, in this study, is specified sample’s writing work on certain topic given by the researcher.

J.      Organization of the Paper
This paper consists of four fine chapters. Chapter I includes, background, reasons for choosing the topic, problem statements, assumptions, purpose of study, significance, purposes of study, limitation of study, and definition of important terms.
Chapter II A Review of Related Literature
Chapter III contains research methodology.
Chapter IV consists of data collection, analysis and findings   
Chapter V covers conclusions and suggestions.    

















CHAPTER II
A REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1     General Remarks
There is extensive research indicating that a rich vocabulary is a critical element of reading ability. Laflamme (1997) states that recent research has identified vocabulary knowledge as the single most important factor in reading comprehension. There is, likewise, no shortage of studies documenting a strong link between reading and writing. "Reading and writing are two analogous and complementary processes in that both involve generating ideas, organizing ideas into a logical order, drafting them a number of times to achieve cohesion, and revising the ideas as is appropriate" (Laflamme, 1997, p. 373). The processes are so closely aligned that some researchers even advocate teaching reading and writing simultaneously, rather than as two separate subjects (Laflamme, 1997).
If the writing process is inextricably linked to the reading process, and the reading process is heavily dependent upon vocabulary, it naturally follows that the writing process is likewise dependent. This digest will explore some of the ways vocabulary influences writing ability, and how teachers can use vocabulary development specifically to improve writing skills.

2.2     Vocabulary and Writing: Finding the Right Words
In some ways, the ability to write effectively hinges upon having an adequate vocabulary even more than does the ability to read. Once students have learned to decode words, they may be able to read and pronounce many words that are unfamiliar to them. They may even be able to determine accurate meanings of unfamiliar words simply by examining the context in which those words are used. During the writing process, however, a student does not have the luxury of examining the context in which a word is used; he or he is creating the context. Therefore, the writer must be able to spontaneously recall words that are known not only by sight, but that are understood well enough to use correctly. "Mayher and Brause (1986) have stated that writing is dependent upon the ability to draw upon words to describe an event" (Corona, Spangenberger, & Venet, 1989, p. 18).
The breadth and depth of a student's vocabulary will have a direct influence upon the descriptiveness, accuracy, and quality of his or her writing. As Ediger (1999) notes, "variety in selecting words to convey accurate meanings is necessary in speaking and writing, the outgoes of the language arts" (p. 1). Corona, Spangenberger, and Venet (1998) concur: "At any level, written communication is more effective when a depth of vocabulary and command of language is evident" (p.26). This means that the chosen words or proper dictions take important role in developing for the productive skills – speaking and writing.     

2.3     Principles of Vocabulary Development
Because words are the writer's most important tools, vocabulary development must be an important and ongoing part of classroom learning. Laflamme (1997) offers several key principles that should guide the creation and implementation of a comprehensive vocabulary development program.
1.    Teachers must offer direct instruction of techniques or procedures for developing a broad and varied vocabulary. This instruction can be provided both formally through the language arts program, and informally through various classroom interactions-such as story time-with students.
2.    New vocabulary terms must be connected to students' previous knowledge and experiences. If students are unable to contextualize new words by attaching them to words and concepts they already understand, the words will likely have little meaning to them. And as Ediger (1999) points out, "if meaning is lacking, the chances are pupils will memorize terms and concepts for testing purposes only or largely" (p. 2).
3.    Students should be able to contextualize the vocabulary terms they have learned and use them in society (Ediger, 1999, p. 7). In order for students to do this successfully, they must first learn to become comfortable using these words in the classroom. Students should be required or encouraged to incorporate new vocabulary terms into their oral and written reports and presentations.
4.    Practice and repetition are important methods by which students can become familiar with new words and under- stand how they may be used correctly (Laflamme, 1997). Students should be frequently exposed to the same words through practice exercises, classroom use, and testing.
5.    Teachers should model an enthusiasm for and curiosity about new words through their own behaviors and attitudes. Teachers who are enthusiastic about vocabulary development will automatically look for "teachable moments" throughout the day, pointing out interesting words as they crop up in texts, stories, or conversation; asking students to explore alternative ways of expressing concepts; and helping identify colorful, descriptive ways of speaking and writing.
6.    Schools, teachers, and students must be committed to vocabulary development over the long term. The teaching of vocabulary must be an interdisciplinary project, integrated into the curriculum at every level.

            Based on the quotations mentioned above it can be concluded that certain efforts in dealing with developing are supposed to be connected to direct instruction of techniques, students' previous knowledge and experiences, contextual vocabulary terms, practice and repetition. In addition, teachers should be the model of new word exposures supported by the commitment by schools, and other teachers over the long term.

2.4     Using Vocabulary to Improve Writing Skills
While improved vocabulary can enhance students' writing skills, there is no guarantee that it will do so automatically. Improvement in vocabulary will result in improved writing skills only if the teacher is able to create a classroom that takes writing seriously. "In such a classroom, process and environment are closely intertwined and interdependent. The process does not come alive unless the environment is conducive to it" (Corona, Spangenberger, & Venet, 1998, p. 24).            The following are techniques that the writer could summarize and quote from some related sources and that can be used to create a writing-centered classroom.
1.        Sharing vocabulary-rich literature. Sloane (1996) explains that in her quest to help her students become better writers, he "went to the best source for teaching good writing: good books" (p. 268). By having students read (or reading aloud to them) books, poems, and stories that contain interesting vocabulary, teachers can both introduce new words and provide a forum for discussing them.
2.        Helping students become aware of and look for interesting words. There are many different forms this can take. For example, students could pair up and look through books for words that catch their attention, then write down common words that the author could have used instead. Other methods include having students: write words they encounter on an "Interesting Word Wall" (Sloane, 1996. P. 268); create a word bank through words-of-the day that are taken from classroom literature (Corona, Spangenberger, & Venet, 1998, p. 25); record or act out energetic verbs; or write unfamiliar words in "literature-response journals" for later exploration (Manning, 1999, p. 3).
3.        Offering a variety of writing opportunities. "A writer-centered classroom emphasizes using written expression to communicate ideas. Writing is an important part of all areas of the curriculum" (Corona, Spangenberger, & Venet, 1998, p. 29). The authors go on to note that students have a greater investment in their writing when they are given choices about their assignments. Such choices may include journal or diary entries, weekly logs summarizing journal entries, book reports, outlines, poetry, autobiographies, short stories, or any number of variations on the above.
4.        Providing ample time for students to fully experience the writing process (Corona, Spangenberger, & Venet, 1998). The teaching of writing should be approached as a process that must be studied in depth, and substantial blocks of time should be devoted to writing.
5.        Allowing students to conference with teachers and fellow students (Corona, Spangenberger, & Venet, 1998). When writing topics are chosen, students should meet with their teacher to discuss ideas and answer questions. The teacher's role is to encourage, build on existing strengths, and help the student expand his or her abilities. Conferencing with fellow students gives the budding writer the opportunity to share ideas, brainstorm, and rework his or her project.





















CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1    Research Method
The research method used in this study was Correlation Method with Quantitative Design.
“A quantitative study is best typified by an experiment designed to test a hypothesis through the use of objective instruments and appropriate statistical analysis.” (Yoyo S, 2004: 1)

From definition above, the study was intended to test the research hypothesis that is” there is positive correlation between students’ vocabulary matery and their achievement in writing composition”.  Therefore, he used a statistic tool which was developed to measure the degree of relationship, a coefficient correlation. According to Evelyn and Farhadi (1982:195) it can be summarized that: 
1.    If high scores one variable are associated with high scores on the other variable, there is positive relationship between the two variables.
2.    If high scores on one variable are associated with low score on the other, there is a negative relationship between the two variables.
3.    If there no systematic pattern between high and low score, there will be no relationship between the two sets of variable.
In this case a coefficient is to measure whether or not there was the degree of relationship between the two variables, among positive relationship, negative relationship, or not at all relationship.
The formula used by the writer was as follow:
3.2    The Population and Sample
Populasi adalah totalitas dari semua objek atau individu yang memiliki karakteristik tertentu, jelas dan lengkap yang akan diteliti.” (Hasan, 2002: 58)
The population of this research was all of the second year students of STKIP Garut of English Department. The total number of the students was 131 of four parallel classes of academic year 2008/2009. Of the total population, 40 students were purposively selected as the sample of the research.
The sample of this research was taken from one class of the second year consist of 40 students.
Sampel adalah bagian dari populasi yang diambil melalui cara-cara tertentu yang juga memiliki karakteristik tertentu, jelas dan lengkap yang dianggap bisa mewakili populasi.“ (Hasan, 2002:58)

The writer determined the population and sample for collecting data. The population could be determined as the subject of the research, while the sample was a part of the whole population.

3.4  The Variables in the Study
This research had two variables that the writer would like to find out, Vocabulary mastery, as independent variable
1.      Achievement in writing composition, as dependent variable
In this research, the writer tried to find out the extent of the correlation between the two variables above.


3.5  The Research Instrument Development
Suharsimi (1996) as quoted by Hasan (2002:76) states that:
Instrumen penelitian adalah alat atau fasilitas yang digunakan oleh peneliti dalam mengumpulkan data agar pekerjaannya lebih mudah dan hasilnya lebih baik, dalam arti lebih cermat, lengkap dan sistematis sehingga lebih mudah diolah.”

From definition above the writer concluded that instrument was a tool to get the data in the research. In relation to the objectives of this study, the writer employed tests of vocabulary and writing to get the data needed.
The writer used and vocabulary and writing tests in order to be able to collect data needed. The tests were designed to measure the effect of specific teaching in an area of the curriculum (Page and Thomas, 1979: 181). The vocabulary test he used was the objective test in the form of multiple choices. The scope of the test was based on the scope of the test materials covered in the subject of Vocabulary 2 of the current smester. Meanwhile, the writing test was wraite an essay, in which the students were asked to select one of the topics given and they wrote the paragraphs. In this test, they had to write for at least 500 words.
There are 40 items of the best formed in the multiple choice that the students had to answer by crossing the A, B, C, D and E, the correct one in the answer sheet. Each item was scored 1. In other words, the possible highest score 40 (40 times 1), and the lowest one was 0 (0 times 1).
According to Dr. Suharsimi Arikunto (1978:164), the categorization was supposed to be in accordance to the following guideline:
           
S= raw score
R= the correct answer
W= the false an answer
O= the option amount
 l= the constant amount

To give the meaning of the scores, the writer took these consideration, the highest score from the results was 29, is subtracted by the lowest, then, the results were divided into three classifications.
12 – 21 (classified as failed)
23 – 31 (classified as average)            
32 – 40 (classified as successful)

On the other hand, a questionnaire was used when factual information was desired (John W. Best and James V. Kahn, 1989:181). To measure the students’ writing composition the writer divided the range of the scores into five categories which were labelled as very good (4), Good (3), Average (2), Poor (1), and Failed (0)

3.6  Procedures
In orther to get the data, the following procedures were conducted:
1.        The writer arranged vocabulary and writing tests.
2.        She contacted the sample for the tests.
3.        She gave the tests to the sample
4.        She examined and scored the students’ test results
5.        She analized the tests results.
6.        She used Pearson Product Moments  to find out the correlation between the two varables.
7.        She interpreted the final results.
8.        She tested the hypothesis

3.7  Techniques of Data Analysis
The writer proceeded to compute and analyze the data gained through questionnaire and test. For this reason, quantitative method was used to analyze the data gained. Surjakusumah (2004:1) stated that “quantitative study is best typified by an experiment designed to test a hypothesis, and qualitative methodology is a research which is not intended to set out to test hypothesis.”
The definition above explained that quantitative methodology was intended to set out the hypothesis testing; while qualitative methodology was not applied to test hypotheses in this research.




















CHAPTER IV
DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

4.1 Test Result Analysis
The table below is the final results of the two tests given:
THE SCORE OF THE TEST RESULT
NO
Name of students
Score of Vocabulary Test
Score Writing Test
1
S1
104
20
2
S2
112
28
3
S3
67
12
4
S4
88
19
5
S5
90
22
6
S6
104
29
7
S7
87
16
8
S8
83
20
9
S9
92
22
10
S10
100
21
11
S11
105
12
12
S12
95
18
13
S13
89
13
14
S14
106
24
15
S15
110
19
16
S16
97
25
17
S17
101
19
18
S18
106
20
19
S19
102
24
20
S20
109
22
21
S21
111
27
22
S22
107
19
23
S23
71
14
24
S24
80
12
25
S25
90
19
26
S26
93
17
27
S27
93
19
28
S28
102
18
29
S29
90
13
30
S30
94
22
31
S31
110
23
32
S32
131
29
33
S33
93
12
34
S34
109
16
35
S35
95
23
36
S36
103
21
37
S37
96
12
38
S38
104
19
39
S39
96
16
40
S40
89
12
Summary
3909
723

The total score of both Vocabulary and writing tests were collected by the writer. Then he applied the following technique to analyze the available data, by computing the Person Product Moment Correlation:


X          = the score of interest
Y          = the score of achievement
X2        = the score each score and to enter the number
Y2        = the score each score and to enter the members
XY       = the multiple X and Y score together
To know the criterion of coefficient correlation, the writer used the formula as describe by Nugraha (1993: 70). Furthermore, he explained that:
ла = -1                          perfect negative correlation
-1 < p ≤ -0.80              highest negative correlation
-0.80 < p ≤ -0.60         high negative correlation
 -0.60 < p ≤ -0.40        average negative correlation
-0.40 < p ≤ -0.20         low negative correlation
-0.20 < p ≤ 0               lowest negative correlation
P=1                             has no correlation
0 < p ≤ -0.20               lowest correlation
0.40 < p ≤ -0.60          average correlation
0.60 < p ≤ -0.80          high correlation
0.80 < p ≤ -1               highest correlation



4.2 Correlation Analysis

N
X
Y
X2
Y2
XY
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
131
112
111
110
110
109
109
108
107
106
106
105
104
104
104
103
102
102
101
97
96
96
95
95
94
93
93
93
92
90
90
90
89
88
87
85
83
80
71
67
29
28
27
19
23
22
16
21
19
24
20
12
20
29
19
21
24
18
17
25
16
12
18
23
22
17
19
12
22
22
19
13
13
19
16
12
25
12
14
12
17161
12544
12321
12100
12100
11881
11881
11664
11449
11236
11236
11025
10816
10816
10816
10609
10404
10404
10201
9409
9216
9216
9025
9025
8836
8649
8649
8649
8464
8100
8100
8100
7921
7744
7569
7396
6889
6400
5041
4489
841
784
729
361
529
484
256
441
361
576
400
144
400
841
361
441
576
324
289
625
256
144
324
529
484
289
361
144
484
484
361
169
169
361
256
144
625
144
196
144
3799
3136
2997
2090
2530
2398
1744
2268
2033
2544
2120
1260
2080
3016
1976
2163
2448
1836
1717
2425
1536
1152
1710
2185
2068
1581
1767
1116
2024
1980
1710
1170
1157
1672
1392
1032
2075
960
994
804

3909
723
387551
14523
72255

∑X=3909
∑Y= 723
∑ X2 = 387551
∑ Y2 = 14523
∑XY = 72255

After the writer had made the table above, he computed of the coefficient correlation as follows:







Based on the correlation scores, the coefficient correlation 0.56 existed between the range 0.40 ≤ P < 0.60. Based on the computation, it was found that the correlation (0.56) was between the two variables. Then, it could be concluded that the correlation of the two variables was in average level.






CHAPTER V
CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

5.1 Conclusions

In order to have a clear and brief picture of what the writer has written in her paper, he feels it is necessary to conclude the discussion of the previous chapter. Therefore, he puts forwards some conclusions as follows:
·           Students' writing achievement varyies from one to the other, although they are taught by the same teachers or they are in the same classroom.
·           According to this study the result of computation the writer can say that vocabulary mastery is very important in achieving good result writing composition. In other word, there is a positive relation between students' vocabulary and their writing achievement.
·           Although the result of computation has shown that the relationship between the two exists, the relationship is not as good as it looks.

5.2 Suggestions
Considering that vocabulary mastery is influential on writing achievement, so, teachers should develop certain strategies that lead the students to have sufficient vocabulary in relation to their level of study.
Finally, the writer hopes that this observation will be benefecial for readers and he suggests that a deeper investigation is really expected to enrich this current result of the research.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

  
Corona, Cathy, Spangenberger, Sandra, & Venet, Iris (1998). Improving Student Writing through a Language Rich Environment. M.A. Action Research Project, St. Xavier University and IRI/Skylight, 61 pages

Ediger, Marlow. (1999). "Reading and Vocabulary Development." Journal of Instructional Psychology, 26(1), 7-15

Fraenkel, J. R. and Wallen, N.E. 1990. How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing. 

Krashen,S.D. and Terrell, T. 1982. The Natural Approach: Language Acquisition In the Classroom. Hayward. CA: Alemany Press

Laflamme, John G. (1997). "The Effect of Multiple Exposure Vocabulary Method and the Target Reading/Writing Strategy on Test Scores." Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 40(5), 372-384.
Mayher, J.S., & Brause, R.S. (1986). "Learning through Teaching: Is Testing          Crippling Integrated Language Education?" Language Arts, 63(4), 390-96.
Manning, Maryann. (1999). "Helping Words Grow." Teaching PreK-8, 29(4), 103-105.

Petrosky, A. R. (1982). From story to essay: Reading and writing. College composition and Communication, TESOL Quarterly 33, 19-36.

Sloane, Megan. (1996). "Encouraging Young Students to Use Interesting Words in Their Writing." The Reading Teacher, 50(3), 268-69.







The Integration Of Teaching Vocabulary Writing Composition
(A Descriptive Study at STKIP Garut)



Submitted to the English Education Department of STKIP Garut
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Sarjana Degree






By:
Hendri Aji Pangestu










ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
SEKOLAH TINGGI KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN
STKIP GARUT
2012






1 komentar:

  1. ada yang punya skripsi dengan metode deskriptif gak ?

    BalasHapus